The literature and studies on the topic of judicial selection are extensive. Chief Justice O’Connor’s proposal draws from the work of previous judicial selection reform efforts and the work of scholars and experts from diverse fields including the law, political science, and other disciplines. To encourage citizens’ participation in the Ohio Courts 2013 conversation, these resources are made available here. Below is a list of books, journal articles, reports and other resources on judicial selection. Those available online have direct links. Others are available in the Ohio Supreme Court Law Library. If you have questions about how to access any of these resources or have other items to be added, please e-mail or call 614.387.9250.

Ohio Courts 2013

Previous Judicial Selection Initiatives

Next Steps 2003

Forum on Judicial Selection 2009

Ohio Constitution

Legal Articles

  • Harris Interactive. Civics Education. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2005. Last accessed April 29, 2013.
  • Perceptions of Fairness and Justice: The Shared Aims and Occasional Conflicts of Legitimacy and Moral Credibility (Wake Forest Law Review, 2012)
  • Augenblick, Ned and Scott Nicholson. Ballot Position, Choice Fatigue, and Voter Behavior. Berkeley: University of California. Last modified December 18, 2012.
  • Judicial Independence in the Age of Runaway Campaign Spending: How More Vigilant Court Action and Stronger Recusal Statutes Can Reclaim the Perception of an Independent Judiciary (Case Western Review Law Review, 2011)
  • Ballot Question Readability and Roll-Off: The Impact of Language Complexity (Political Research Quarterly, 2011)
  • Clark, Mary. “Advice and Consent vs. Silence and Dissent? The Contrasting Roles of the Legislature in U.S. and U.K. Judicial Appointments.” Louisiana Law Review 71, (2011): 451-502.
  • A Legal, Political, and Ethical Analysis of Judicial Selection in Ohio: A Proposal for Reform (Capital University Law Review, 2010)
  • Thoughts on Safeguarding Judicial Independence: An Interview with Justice Sandra Day O’Connor (American Bar Association, 2009)
  • Voter Rolloff in a Low-Information Context: Evidence From Intermediate Appellate Court Elections (American Politics Research, 2009)
  • O’Connor, Sandra Day. “The Essentials and Expendables of the Missouri Plan.” Missouri Law Review 74, (2009): 479-494.
  • Gibson, James L. and Gregory A. Caldeira. “Knowing about Courts.” 2nd Annual Conference on Empirical Legal Studies Paper. Last modified June 20, 2007:
  • Ballot Design and Unrecorded Votes on Paper-Based Ballots (Public Opinion Quarterly, 2005)
  • Champagne, Anthony. “Tort Reform and Judicial Selection.” Loyola of Los Angles Law Review 38, (2005): 1483-1516.
  • Too Far to the Bottom? Exploring the Phenomenon of Voter Roll-Off (Clark and Peterson, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 2002)
  • Thirty Years of Judicial Retention Elections: An Update (The Social Science Journal, 2000)
  • Judicial Election & Appointment at the State Level: Voters’ Information in Judicial Elections: The 1986 Contests for the Ohio Supreme Court (Kentucky Law Journal, 1989)
  • Milligan, William T., and James E. Pohlman. “The 1968 Modern Courts Amendment to the Ohio Constitution.” Ohio State Law Journal 29, (1968): 811-848.


  • American Bar Association Commission on the 21st Century Judiciary. Justice in Jeopardy. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2003.
  • American Bar Association Standing Committee on Judicial Independence. Standards on State Judicial Selection: Report of the Commission on State Judicial Selection Standards. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2000.
  • Bonneau, Chris W. and Melinda Gann Hall. In Defense of Judicial Elections. New York: Routledge, 2009.
  • Bowler, Shaun, Todd Donovan and Trudi Happ. “Ballot Propositions and Information
    Costs: Direct Democracy and the Fatigued Voter.” The Western Political Quarterly, 45 (1992): 559-568.
  • Burnham, Walter D. “The Changing Shape of the American Political Universe.” The American Political Science Review 59, (1965): 7-28.
  • Caufield, Rachel Paine. Inside Merit Selection: A National Survey of Judicial Nominating Commissioners. Des Moines: American Judicature Society, 2012.
  • Dubois, Philip L. From Ballot to Bench: Judicial Elections and the Quest for Accountability. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1980.
  • Geyh, Charles Gardner. “Perspectives on Judicial Independence: Why Judicial Elections Stink.” Ohio State Law Journal 64, (2003): 43-79.
  • Gibson, James L. Electing Judges: The Surprising Effects of Campaigning on Judicial Legitimacy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • Johnson, Charles A, Roger C. Schaefer, and R. Neal McKnight. “The Salience of Judicial Candidates and Elections.” Social Science Quarterly 59, no. 2 (1978): 371-378.
  • Kimball, David C. and Martha Kropf. “Ballot Design and Unrecorded Votes on Paper-Based Ballots.” Public Opinion Quarterly 69, no. 4 (2005): 508-529.
  • Krosnik, Jon A, Joanne M. Miller and Michael P. Tichy. “An Unrecognized Need for Ballot Reform,”’ in Rethinking the Vote: The Politics and Prospects of American Election Reform, edited by Ann N. Crigler, Marion R. Just and Edward J. McCaffery, 51-74. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Liptak, Adam and Allison Kopicki. “Approval Rating for Justices Hits Just 44% in New Poll.” New York Times, June 8, 2012, New York edition.
  • Lovrich, Nicholas P. Jr and Charles H. Sheldon. “Voters in Contested, Non-partisan Judicial Elections: A Responsible Electorate or a Problematic Public?” Western Political Quarterly 36, no. 2, (1983): 241-256.
  • Meredith, Marc and Yuval Slanat. “On the Causes and Consequences of Ballot Order-Effects.” Political Behavior 35, no.1 (2013): 175-197.
  • Miller, Joanne M. and Jon A. Krosnic. “The Impact of Candidate Name Order on Election Outcomes.” Public Opinion Quarterly 62, no.3 (1998): 291-330.
  • Norden, Lawrence. “Letter to Governor Haley Barbour.” Brennan Center for Justice, September 11, 2008.
  • Opinion Strategies. Ohio Statewide Survey. Washington DC: League of Women Voters, October 2002.
  • Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Supreme Court Favorability Reaches New Low. Washington DC: Pew Research Center, 2012.
  • Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Separate Branches, Shared Responsibilities: A National Survey of the Public Expectations on Solving Justice Issues. Williamsburg: National Center for State Courts, 2009.
  • Tarr, G. Alan, and Mary Porter. State Supreme Courts in State and Nation. New Haven: Yale University Press , 1988.
  • Streb, Matthew. Rethinking American Electoral Democracy. New York: Routledge, 2008.
  • Strickland, S., R. Schauffler, R. LaFountain & K. Holt, eds. “State Court Organization: Table 21 Judicial Selection.” National Center for State Courts. Last updated March 6, 2013.
  • Suddes, Thomas. “Knowledge Gaps in Metropolitan Ohio: Ohio Supreme Court Contests, Newspaper Editorial Pages, and the Cue-Less Reader, 1938-1998.” Master’s Thesis, Ohio University, 2002.
  • Sullivan, Kathleen. “Republican Party of Minnesota v. White: What are the Alternatives?.” Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics 21, (2008): 1327- 1346.
  • Wattenberg, Martin P., Ian McAllister and Anthony Salvanto. ”How Voting is Like Taking an SAT Test: An Analysis of Voter Rolloff.” American Politics Quarterly 28, (2000): 234-250.


  • Rowland, Darrell. “Poll: Ohioans Support System of Selecting Judges.” Columbus Dispatch, December 12, 2012.
  • Crisp, Elizabeth. “Election won’t End Fight Over Judicial Selection Conservatives Want More Voter Input and Less Control by Governor and Trial Lawyers.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri), October 27, 2012.
  • Kendell, Doug. “The 200-day Club.”, September 27, 2012.
  • PR Newswire. “Two-Thirds of Americans Can’t Name Any U.S. Supreme Court Justices, Says New Survey.” June 1, 2010.
  • Cleveland Plain Dealer. “Cash v. Quality: Ohio’s Judicial Elections Smell More of Money than
    Merit, and the Rules Must Change to Give Voters Meaningful Choices.” March 5, 2003.

Other Resources

    • National Center for State Courts
      • Judicial Selection and Retention
      • Judicial Selection in the States:
        • Rottman, David. A Call to Action with Commentary. (November 2002).
        • Judicial Democracy. (October 2003). Lexington, KY, Council of State Government
        • Vinning, Richard L. Jr. Judicial Departures and the Introduction of Qualified Retirement, 1892 – 1953. (2009). Justice System Journal (Vol. 30, No. 2).
        • Danos, Colleen. Judicial Election and Judicial Independence Concerns: Stepping Up to the Plate. (March 2003). Knowledge and Information Services Memorandum.
        • Judicial Independence and Selection. (2006). Top Ten article from “Future Trends in State Courts,” 2006.
        • Aspin, Larry. Judicial Retention Election Trends: 1964-2006. (March 2007). Judicature 90, no. 5: 208
        • Dancy, Denise. Judicial Selection. (2008). Future Trends in State Courts.
        • Judicial Selection and Service (Tables 4-11). (2006). State Court Organization 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
        • Caufield, Rachel Paine and Malia Reddick. Judicial Selection: The Process of Choosing Judges. (June 2008). ABA Coalition for Justice.
        • O’Connor Judicial Selection Initiative. Institute for the Advancement of the American Legal System, University of Denver.
        • Rottman, David B. The Changing Face of Judicial Elections: Can the Past Tell Us About the Future?. (2009). Future Trends in State Courts.
        • Strebb, Matthew J. The Need for More Individual-Level Judicial Election Data. (2009). Justice System Journal (Vol. 30, No. 3).
        • Saloka, Rebecca Mae, D. Jason Berggren and Kathryn A. DePalo. The New Politics of Judicial Selection in Florida: Merit Selection Redefined. (2006). Justice System Journal (Vol. 27, No. 2).
        • Bonneau, Chris W. Vacancies on the Bench: Open-Seat Elections for State Supreme Courts. (2006). Justice System Journal (Vol. 27, No. 2).
        • Voter Opinion on the Election or Appointment of State Supreme Court Justices. (July 2008). American Justice Partnership Foundation.
      • Judicial Selection in the States:

Campaign Financing Reforms

  • Forum on Judicial Selection and Campaign Finance Reform. (September 1999). American Bar Association, Independence of the Judiciary Resources and Information. Provides audio links to speeches on judicial selection.
  • Judicial Compensation Resource Guide

Other AJS links


Helpful Articles or Statements on States’ Judicial Selection

  • Iowa: Judicial Selection
  • Kansas: National Review, Battle for Judicial Selection in Kansas
  • Topeka Capital-Journal: “Legislature Debates Judicial Selection Process”
  • Minnesota: Minnesota Commission on Judicial Selection
  • Missouri: St. Louis Post Dispatch – “Group Drops Campaign for Judicial Selection Reform in Missouri”